More From Our Partners Brave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgBill Gates reportedly hoped Jeffrey Epstein would help him win a Nobelnypost.com980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.comFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comUK teen died on school trip after teachers allegedly refused her pleasnypost.comMatt Gaetz swindled by ‘malicious actors’ in $155K boat sale boondogglenypost.comMark Eaton, former NBA All-Star, dead at 64nypost.comConnecticut man dies after crashing Harley into live bearnypost.com Share whatsapp Cineworld said yesterday new blockbusters should lift business this year as its profit was hit by the poor weather before Christmas. The group said 2011 promised to be a big year with a schedule which includes new Harry Potter and Sherlock Holmes films and a number of 3D movies, following the success of Avatar. Cineworld reported a 0.3 per cent increase in pre-tax profits to £30.4m in the year to 30 December.But the firm, which has 78 cinemas across the UK, saw movie-goers dip to 47.2m in 2010, from 48.2m the previous year. The company is opening new cinemas in places including Manchester and Hampshire this year. It also confirmed that it is on the alert for possible acquisitions. Chief executive Steve Wiener said: “We were hit by the snow but have some great films coming up.” Show Comments ▼ by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeHealthyTed Health Magazine10 Surprising Benefits of Bananas You Possibly Didn’t Know AboutHealthyTed Health MagazineAll Things Auto | Search AdsNew Cadillac’s Finally On SaleAll Things Auto | Search AdsTaonga: The Island FarmThe Most Relaxing Farm Game of 2021. No InstallTaonga: The Island FarmForge of Empires – Free Online GameIf You Like to Play, this City-Building Game is a Must-Have. No Install.Forge of Empires – Free Online GameElvenarIf You Need to Kill Time on Your Computer, this Fantasy Game is a Must-Have. No Install.ElvenarAll Things Auto | Search AdsNew Acura’s Finally On SaleAll Things Auto | Search AdsPast Factory4 Sisters Take The Same Picture For 40 Years. Don’t Cry When You See The Last One!Past FactoryBest Selling Grills | Search AdsTraeger Blaze & American Grills On SaleBest Selling Grills | Search AdsSonoviaStoreThese Amazing Pillowcases Got It Just Right!SonoviaStore Thursday 10 March 2011 7:25 pm Cineworld looks for 3D boost KCS-content whatsapp Tags: NULL
Fincorp Investment Ltd (FINC.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Investment sector has released it’s 2020 interim results for the third quarter.For more information about Fincorp Investment Ltd (FINC.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Fincorp Investment Ltd (FINC.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Fincorp Investment Ltd (FINC.mu) 2020 interim results for the third quarter.Company ProfileFincorp Investment Limited operates solely as an investment company that is fully owned by the Mauritius Commercial Bank. The company offers services in funds management, property investment, and specialised services in mortgaging, property investment products and property development. Fincorp Investment Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
Lloyds share price: here’s what I think a no-deal Brexit could mean for the bank I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Jonathan Smith | Wednesday, 16th December, 2020 | More on: LLOY Over the past week, the risk of a no-deal Brexit has risen substantially. Or has it? Last Sunday was meant to be the deadline for talks, but this has been pushed back again. At the same time, PM Boris Johnson has commented that it’s very likely the UK will leave the EU and move to WTO terms from January. It’s hard to tell where political games end and reality starts, but investors need to be prepared either way. As Lloyds Banking Group (LSE: LLOY) is one of the most traded stocks in the FTSE 100, the share price could be volatile whatever the outcome.A negative outcome for Lloyds sharesSimply put, I think that a no-deal Brexit would almost certainly see the Lloyds share price slump in the short term. This is because of the perceived impact investors think a no-deal would have on the bank. In the immediate aftermath, we won’t know for sure what the impact will be. But this won’t stop the share price from reacting to the worst-case scenario.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…For example, a no-deal could see international trade dry up, with imports becoming more expensive and exports getting smaller. This would give the UK a wide trade deficit, leading to slower economic growth (or even negative growth). The Lloyds share price is seen as a barometer for the UK economy, and so could fall on the above thinking. UK-focused companies like Lloyds would also miss out on any benefit from a weaker British Pound. A no-deal Brexit could see the pound fall up to 10%. This would help net exporters within the FTSE 100, as foreign earnings buy more pounds. For Lloyds and other businesses that operate mostly in the local currency, there’ll be no benefit here.Company-specific issuesA no-deal Brexit could hamper the Lloyds share price at a company-specific level too. In order to soften the shock to the economy, the Bank of England would likely cut interest rates down to 0% or even negative. The margin that Lloyds makes between what it lends at, versus what borrows at, would be reduced even further. We’ve already seen rate cuts this year hurt the profitability for the bank.Add to this the potential bad debt provisions needed to be set aside. In the second quarter of 2020, Lloyds set aside around £2.4bn in provisions due to the pandemic. I’m confident no-deal wouldn’t hurt businesses as hard as the pandemic has done, but the bank would still need to set aside an extra provision to cover this event, which is negative for the bank overall.One of the few positives that can be taken away for the Lloyds share price is that it’s already starting from a low price. The shares trade around 35p at the moment, down almost 50% from a year ago. The last time it traded this low for a long period was back in 2012. So a no-deal event could knock it down, but how much lower can it really go?Overall, I think a no-deal Brexit is bad news for the Lloyds share price. I’m staying away from investing in it until we have more clarity on the situation. 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Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter By Dimitra Fimi, and first published on theconversation.comLike parents the world over, J.R.R. Tolkien dedicated considerable time and effort to making Christmas a joyful time for his young children. Yet this was a man whose rich imagination brought to life an entire world with thousands of years of legendary history; described different orders of creatures, wars, and battles; even invented languages. So inevitably, his family traditions were something rather special.Every year, from 1920 to 1942, the Tolkien children – first John, and later Michael, Christopher, and Priscilla – would receive a letter from Father Christmas. It would be written in his spidery hand (he would, after all, be a very old man) and illustrated with funny scenes from life in the North Pole. In 2018, the Bodleian Libraries at Oxford will exhibit the letters, alongside other manuscripts, artwork, maps, letters, and artifacts from Tolkien collections around the world.The American influenceTolkien was not the first author to produce letters from Father Christmas for his children. Mark Twain famously wrote a letter from “Santa Claus” to his elder daughter, Susie Clemens. And although Tolkien retained the English name for his protagonist, there was a lot of popular American-derived folklore associated with his Father Christmas.The aurora borealis, 1926: ‘Isn’t the North Polar Bear silly? … [he] turned on all the Northern Lights for two years in one go. You have never heard or seen anything like it. I have tried to draw a picture of it: but I am too shaky to do it properly and you can’t paint fizzing light can you?’ © The Tolkien Estate Ltd, 1976.The idea of Santa Claus dressed in red and white, and riding a sleigh drawn by reindeer every Christmas Eve delivering presents to children, comes from perhaps the best-known poem in the English language: The Night Before Christmas. Written either by Clement Moore or Henry Livingston (the authorship is contested) in the 19th century, this classic American poem established Saint Nicholas, or Santa Claus, as we know him today.The imagery of Santa Claus was enhanced by German-American illustrator Thomas Nast, who provided Santa with elf helpers and a toy workshop, and portrayed him living in the North Pole and in regular receipt of children’s letters.Tolkien borrows freely from all of this American pop culture which, by the end of the 19th century, had migrated to Britain and was immensely popular. But he also takes his Father Christmas in different directions, gravitating towards his own mythology of Middle-earth, which was developing in parallel.Old friends, and newSo, of course, we get elves in Tolkien’s North Pole. But despite the fact that these are diminutive, jolly elves with pointed hats (a far cry from those of The Lord of the Rings) they belong to different kindreds: Snow Elves, Red Elves or Gnomes, Green Elves – not unlike the High Elves, Silvan Elves and others in The Lord of the Rings.Some of the Christmas elves were fierce warriors, giving the evil goblins a run for their money in battle. Indeed, the goblins themselves are precursors of the Goblins in The Hobbit, and later the Orcs. They live underground, they are keen on tunneling, and they are a perennial threat to Christmas.Christmas, 1932: ‘The caves are wonderful. I knew they were there, but not how many or how big they were. Of course, the goblins went off into the deepest holes and corners, and we soon found Polar Bear. He was getting quite long and thin with hunger, as he had been in the caves about a fortnight … At the top of my ‘Christmas card’ is a picture, imaginary, but more or less as it really is, of me arriving over Oxford. Your house is just about where the three little black points stick up out of the shadow at the right.’ © The Tolkien Estate Ltd, 1976At the same time, Tolkien expands the Christmas mythology considerably. Father Christmas’s best friend (and regular rascal) is the North Polar Bear, whose funny antics are the focus of the early letters. Later on, his nephews, Paksu and Valkotukka (Finnish for “fat” and “white hair” respectively) provide further comic relief and showcase Tolkien’s love for the language which influenced one of his own invented languages, Quenya, spoken by the Elves of Middle-earth.A number of “aetiological” myths are also added: motifs that “explain” away things that happen in the real world of Tolkien’s children. So broken chocolates can be explained by the Polar Bear squishing them, and a bright light in the night sky is surely a glimpse of the gigantic Christmas tree in the North Pole.Innocence lostMore details and innovations make this frozen world wonderful and intriguing. Father Christmas apparently has a tap in his cellar that “turns on” the Aurora Borealis; there is cave art by primeval men in the goblin caves, including depictions of mammoths and reindeer; and Snow-boys (the sons of Snow-men who live in the vicinity) get invites to parties in Father Christmas’s house.Cave drawings, 1932: ‘Polar Bear himself was astonished when I brought light; for the most remarkable thing is that the walls of these caves are all covered with pictures, cut into the rock or painted on in red and brown and black. Some of them are very good (mostly of animals), and some are queer and some bad; and there are many strange marks, signs, and scribbles, some of which have a nasty look.’ © The Tolkien Estate Ltd, 1976Even more Tolkienian, we also get invented languages and alphabets. An elf called Ilbereth, who becomes Father Christmas’s secretary, sends the children a Merry Christmas message in elvish script, which is ostensibly a variation of Tolkien’s tengwar writing system, the same seen on the One Ring in The Lord of the Rings. And the Polar Bear gives us a sentence in “Arctic” (a version of Quenya) and introduces us to an alphabet he has devised based on goblin symbols.The Father Christmas letters were published after Tolkien’s death in 1973, and their lasting popularity is, I would argue, due to the extended Christmas saga they create and the funny and moving father’s voice that comes through each of them.The poignant “last letter”, when Father Christmas waves goodbye to children who are now “too old” to hang their stocking anymore, while the Second World War is raging, marks the end of innocence in more than one way. But the myth of Father Christmas lives on and continues to be a favorite festive read for children all over the world.Dr. Dimitra Fimi is a Senior Lecturer in English at Cardiff Metropolitan University. Her monograph Tolkien, Race, and Cultural History (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) won the Mythopoeic Scholarship Award for Inklings Studies and she co-edited the critical edition of Tolkien’s A Secret Vice (HarperCollins, 2016) which won the Tolkien Society Award for Best Book. She lectures on Tolkien, fantasy, children’s literature, and medievalism. Her latest monograph, Celtic Myth in Contemporary Children’s Fantasy, appeared from Palgrave Macmillan in 2017 and was named runner-up for the Katharine Briggs Folklore Award. Other recent work includes chapters in A Companion to J.R.R. Tolkien (Blackwell, 2014), and Revisiting Imaginary Worlds: An Subcreation Studies Anthology (Routledge, 2016). She has contributed articles for the TLS and The Conversation and appears regularly on BBC Radio Wales. TAGSJRR Tolkien Previous articleCentral Florida teens reaching out to the elderly at ChristmasNext articleA new year’s commitment to challenge yourself Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Please enter your comment! Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Florida gas prices jump 12 cents; most expensive since 2014 You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Gov. DeSantis says new moment-of-silence law in public schools protects religious freedom UF/IFAS in Apopka will temporarily house District staff; saves almost $400,000 Please enter your name here LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply
About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Tagged with: Awards Digital 24 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Howard Lake | 6 September 2007 | News Ephilanthropy Foundation invites votes in People’s Choice Award AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Votes must be cast by 17.00 EDT on 17 September.The awards finalists are:Best Integrated Online and Offline ePhilanthropy CampaignAmerican Friends Service CommitteeASPCAFINCA InternationalGreater Pittsburgh Community Food BankPrincess Margaret Hospital FoundationBest Online Donations/Fundraising CampaignAmerican RiversChild Rights and You – CRYMama CashThe Lost Dogs’ HomeBest Special Event Registration and/or Membership CampaignCommunity Computer Connections Program/RSVPDogs Deserve BetterGulu WalkBest Community Building/ Volunteerism and/or Activism Campaign411KarmaActNowAlliance for International Women’s RightsAmerican Cancer SocietyInternational Fund for Animal WelfareKaBOOM!Oxfam AmericaPeace X PeaceThe Adoption ExchangeThe Humane Society of the United States The ePhilanthropy Foundation is inviting votes for the Global People’s Choice Award in its annual ePhilanthropy Awards. The finalist with the most votes will be announced at the awards luncheon in New York on 20 September and will receive a special award sculpture honoring their achievement.You can vote once and for one organisation. The Foundation encourages voters to preview each organisation’s website to find out more about them.The award is sponsored by ecommerce provider Help For Charities. Advertisement
813 total views, 3 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6 Tagged with: crowdfunding Funding Advertisement AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6 Applications for the Aviva Community Fund are now open, with important changes to criteria in response to COVID-19.The second quarter of the Aviva Community Fund is now accepting applications. Several changes have been made to the now quarterly funding “to better support small causes during Covid-19”. Aviva is sharing out £250,000 among UK Aviva employees every quarter, giving them the chance to decide which projects they want to back personally, alongside further donations from the public.The fund is still encouraging causes to submit their forward-thinking ideas and projects. At the same time, because Aviva knows that small charities need support now more than ever, thecommunity fund has broadened their criteria to include applications from causes to adapt or continue their vital services.This could include covering core running costs, so causes can help their beneficiaries and communities during this time of need.The Aviva Community Fund goes further than simply making grants. It supports would-be and successful applicants with fundraising information via a Facebook group, including advice on howto expand your network of virtual supporters and gain skills, confidence and experience in crowdfunding as a new or additional revenue stream.Applications to the Aviva Community Fund are open until 23.59 on Monday 5 May 2020. Howard Lake | 22 April 2020 | News Applications for the Aviva Community Fund open 812 total views, 2 views today About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
In all the dire news about the increased severity of climate change and its catastrophic effects, the most important element is not just downplayed — it is missing altogether.For example, in a report issued Oct. 8, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicted that as soon as 2040, rising world temperatures will bring inundated coasts, intensifying droughts, worsening food shortages and wildfires, and a mass die-off of coral reefs. (“IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5ºC”) This stunning report, prepared by more than 200 scientists from 40 countries, quantifies the cost of damages to the world economy at $54 TRILLION, but doesn’t even attempt to put a number on the loss of lives.This means that a 3-year-old today could face a terrifying world when they reach 25.Can anything be done to avert this staggering prediction? The cause of global warming and climate change is now well-established: the accumulation of heat-trapping carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, resulting mainly from burning fossil fuels.But while scientists say that “it is technically possible to achieve the rapid changes required to avoid 2.7 degrees [1.5ºC] of warming, they concede that it may be politically unlikely.” (New York Times, Oct. 7)So the science and the technology DO exist to avoid this catastrophe. Shouldn’t that mean a worldwide mobilization to make sure it gets done?Yet it is “politically unlikely.” If anyone thinks that means we just have to get rid of Trump and his cronies, think again. U.S. administrations have been warned about this problem since the 1980s. Both Democratic and Republican administrations decisively rejected the advice of the scientists. (“Losing Earth: The Decade We Almost Stopped Climate Change,” New York Times Magazine, Aug. 1)Global warming is not a problem of science and technology. It’s a problem of class relations. It demonstrates, in the most urgent way, that private ownership of the means of production stands in the way of carrying out rational decisions about the economy.While climate change most damages the people who have the least, it affects all of society. Given what we now know, turning back this catastrophe should be at the top of everyone’s agenda. Instead, the big corporations and banks are totally invested in doing only what turns a profit for them. And they can’t do otherwise — because capitalism is a dog-eat-dog society in which cooperation for the common good has no place.In early human society, when people lived communally and shared what they had, it was to everyone’s benefit to work together to solve problems. Even with limited technology, humans were able to accomplish daunting projects — think of the huge stone statues on Easter Island and the massive circles of Stonehenge. What sacrifices they made to demonstrate their ability to literally move mountains! Class society changed all that. The interests of those owning property — in the form of enslaved people, land and finally capital — became antagonistic to the interests of those doing the work. Human solidarity was destroyed. Greed triumphed over the common good.For human society to be sustainable, there must be solidarity. It was no accident that the early anthem of the workers’ movement in the U.S. was “Solidarity Forever.”Capitalism breaks down solidarity. It pits boss against workers, worker against worker, nation against nation; it divides us by gender and sexual expression, by our place of birth, by our hair and skin color, by language, by religion, ad nauseam. Right now, Indonesia is at the epicenter of countries releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. From 2007 to 2014, vast tropical forests were leveled — at the rate of three acres every minute — to make way for palm oil plantations. In 2015, fires set to then clear the land raged out of control. NASA satellites detected more than 120,000 hot spots. All this was the direct result of supposedly environmental-friendly legislation in the U.S. promoting biofuels over coal. Big U.S. investors like Black Rock were in on the deal. (“Palm Oil Was Supposed to Help Save the Planet. Instead It Unleashed a Catastrophe,” New York Times Magazine, Nov. 20)How did U.S. corporations get such influence in Indonesia? Through a military coup and massacre of a million Indonesians in 1965 that destroyed solidarity by decimating the once-powerful Communist Party there. (Read “Indonesia 1965: The Second Greatest Crime of the Century” at workers.org/books.)Nothing about climate change is inevitable. It’s all connected to the class struggle to take the means of production, as well as science and technology, out of the hands of capitalist exploiters and use it, not for the profits of the few, but for the common good. Which is another way of saying, we urgently need to ramp up the struggle for socialism.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
April 27, 2021 Find out more Help by sharing this information News ChinaAsia – Pacific Condemning abuses Organisation Follow the news on China China’s Cyber Censorship Figures RSF_en Wong Chun Han, a Beijing-based Wall Street Journal reporter, has been forced to relocate on the 30th of August following the denial of his visa renewal. Wong, a Singaporean national, recently reported on the possible involvement of a cousin of Chinese president Xi Jinping in a money laundering probe in Australia, which drew the ire of the Chinese authorities.On the same day, the Chinese Foreign Ministry in a faxed statement to foreign media accused without mentioning names “a few foreign journalists” of “maliciously tarnishing China,” adding that the country doesn’t welcome such reporters.“The work of journalists is not to please the ruling regime, but to inform their readers,” says Cédric Alviani, head of Reporters Without Borders (RSF) East Asia bureau, who also denounces “the constant effort of the Beijing government to pervert the very definition of journalism into state-controlled propaganda.”In its annual report published in January, the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of China (FCCC) denounced a systematic policy aimed at restricting foreign journalists through visa threats.This punishment method was used in 2018 against Megha Rajagopalan, Beijing-based China bureau chief of BuzzFeed News and Hong Kong-based Financial Times news editor Victor Mallet. In 2016, Swedish journalist Jojje Olsson had to leave China for the same reason, as did Ursula Gauthier from French magazine L’Obs in the previous year. In 2012, the New York Times and Al Jazeera were also met with the same situation, as was the Canadian Daily Globe and Mail in 2009.China ranks 177th out of 180 countries and territories in the RSF World Press Freedom Index 2019 with more than 115 journalists jailed. September 5, 2019 RSF urges Beijing to renew Wall Street Journal reporter’s visa News ChinaAsia – Pacific Condemning abuses to go further June 2, 2021 Find out more Reporters Without Borders (RSF) urges Beijing to renew Wall Street Journal reporter’s visa and to stop utilizing visa threats against foreign journalists. Receive email alerts News Democracies need “reciprocity mechanism” to combat propaganda by authoritarian regimes News PHOTO: JOHANNES EISELE / AFP China: Political commentator sentenced to eight months in prison March 12, 2021 Find out more
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Required fields are marked * 0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Community News faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyCitizen Service CenterPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes First Heatwave Expected Next Week Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Business News Community News Science and Technology Urging Caution During a Genomic Revolution: A Conversation with Caltech’s David Baltimore By KATHY SVITIL Published on Wednesday, June 3, 2015 | 4:50 pm David Baltimore. Credit: Bob PazEarlier this year, an elite group of scientists and ethicists—including Nobel Laureate David Baltimore, president emeritus and Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology at Caltech—convened in Napa, California, to discuss the scientific, medical, legal, and ethical implications of genome engineering technology.Such technologies—chief among them a now-widespread genetic tool known as CRISPR-Cas9, known colloquially as “DNA scissors”—allow scientists to make precise edits to the genome, or the entire genetic script, of an organism. By essentially rewriting genomes, researchers can, in weeks rather than years, create animal strains that mimic human diseases to test new therapies; easily knock out genes in the cells of animals and humans to test their function; and even change DNA sequences to correct genetic defects. Such edits can be made in both body cells and in germ-line cells (sperm and eggs), to alter heritable genes.We recently spoke with Baltimore about these new technologies and the issues they raise.What was your motivation for participating in this conversation in January about the uses of genome engineering technology?I was most concerned about the ability to carry out germ-line modifications of humans using this technology. Other issues came up—modification of the general biosphere, somatic gene therapy as opposed to heritable gene therapy—but I think those things are less concerning at the moment.What is the big issue with human germ-line modification?The big issue is how simple it is, at least conceptually, to modify cells—embryonic stem cells as well as somatic cells. The major concern is the potential for off-target effects: If you carry out the germ-line modification of a gene that you have identified as of concern, how do you know that, somewhere else in the genome, there hasn’t been an alteration which you didn’t plan to do but that has occurred anyway? Most of the genome is not coding—it doesn’t code for anything. So you wouldn’t necessarily see a protein change. But that change would become heritable generations into the future. You want to be pretty sure that that is not happening.We know that people have put a lot of effort into minimizing such off-target effects. Whether they have been minimized enough is a very important safety consideration.Are you and your colleagues concerned about the potential for using this technology to create “designer” babies?I think the thing to do is to distinguish between the long-term concern about modifications that are heritable but made for reasons that are “cosmetic,” and a situation in which a modification is made in order to ameliorate a serious human disease.The example that I find most compelling is Huntington’s disease. It involves a mutation in the genome that most people don’t carry; the few people who do carry it suffer very serious deleterious consequences that only become apparent with age. Ridding the genome of that modified gene seems to me to be an unalloyed good. Therefore, the question becomes, do you need to use genome alteration technology to accomplish that end or is there some other way to accomplish that? But the end seems to me to be something almost everybody would agree is a good.But there are situations that are not that clear-cut . . .Exactly. You go from, on one side, Huntington’s disease, and on the other side, the desire for a more intelligent child. One is easy, it can be fixed by changing a single gene. The other is much more complicated. Intelligence certainly isn’t determined by a single gene. It is multigenic—the result of many genes. One is a pretty straightforward medical decision; the other is an issue which is very culturally bound. So those are the two poles, and then there is everything in between.For the in-between situations, that is just a judgment call?Yes, it is a judgment call.Who makes the decisions in those cases?Society, in the end, will make those decisions. The problem that I think everybody has with it is that although society has the ability to make decisions like that, it is a big world. And you could imagine things being done in other jurisdictions, where we don’t have control.How do we manage that?My personal thought is that the best we can do is to make absolutely unambiguous the consensus feeling of society. Because the scientific community is an international community, we do have the ability to at least provide moral guidelines.Any kind of modification that involves something as elusive as intelligence is a long way off. We don’t understand it well enough to make modifications today, and so to an extent we are trying to establish a framework that will serve the world well into the future. That is a big order, and whether an international meeting can grapple with anything as profound as that, we will see.Where do you see this technology in 10 years? 100 years?That is a good distinction—10 years versus 100 years. The latter is very hard to think about, because we have really no idea what scientific advances are going to be made in the next 100 years. About all we can be sure of is that they will be impressive and maybe revolutionary, and will present us with a very different technological landscape in which these questions will evolve.In 10 years, we certainly are likely to know the outline of what we are likely to see, and it is not going to be a whole lot different from what we are seeing today. I would guess that in 10 years, we would understand multigenic traits better than we do now. I do suspect that people will be gratified that at this time we began the basic considerations, because the problems will get more difficult rather than easier.Forty years ago, you were one of the organizers of the influential Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, which laid out voluntary guidelines for the use of genetic engineering—the same type of guidelines you and your colleagues are advocating for now with genome engineering. What was the original inspiration for convening the Asilomar Conference?It was the advent of recombinant DNA technology that drew our attention. We all worked in the biological sciences. We recognized that recombinant DNA technology was a game changer because it was going to allow scientific investigation of the questions that heretofore had been unavailable. In some ways, many of us had designed our careers around the inability to do this kind of work, and, suddenly, we were going to be able to do things that we had only previously dreamed about, if we had considered them at all.But at the same time, there seemed to be potentially problematic aspects to it, in particular the ability to modify organisms, mainly microbial organisms, in ways that could have given the organisms the ability to be a danger to human health.Actually, we simply did not know whether that was a realistic concern or not. As we talked to other people, we discovered that no one knew. So it seemed like a good idea to take a breather and to give consideration to these concerns of potential hazards in an international meeting that would be convened in the United States.Was there some thought that if you tried to self-regulate you could avoid governmental regulation?It wasn’t a matter of avoiding governmental regulation. It was that we thought that we—the scientific community—were uniquely capable of putting in perspective these new capabilities. The answer might have been to have legislation. In fact, as our thinking progressed, we realized that the very best situation would be to avoid legislation because legislation is very hard to undo. We wanted to be sure we would have the flexibility to respond to inevitably changing scientific perspectives.In retrospect, do you think Asilomar was a success?It worked out very close to how we hoped it would. That is, as we learned more, we became more comfortable with the technology; as we investigated potential hazards, we saw less and less reason to be concerned; and we had a built-in flexibility in the system to allow it to evolve in the context of newer understanding.Are you aware of any situations where scientists did not follow the rules?To my knowledge, that has never happened. EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m.
New social housing for Newtowncunningham Facebook Twitter Previous articleAppeal after car hijacked and set alight in DerryNext articleDonegal club suspends activity over ‘Covid spike’ News Highland AudioHomepage BannerNews WhatsApp Google+ Google+ People are due to receive letters of offer today and Monday for new social housing in Newtowncunningham. There are 19 dwellings in total with ten families are getting notifications now while the other nine are due to be released before Christmas.Local Cllr Paul Canning says it’s not only good news for the families in question but for the entire area of Newtowncunningham:Audio Playerhttps://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/cansdsdffsdfsdning.wav00:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Pinterest Twitter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Pinterest Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Facebook FT Report: Derry City 2 St Pats 2 DL Debate – 24/05/21 WhatsApp Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows By News Highland – August 7, 2020 Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA